Open Curriculum for Open Educational Practice

M1: Introduction

The project «From open educational resources to open educational practices for commons community and cultural projects» (OpenCCCP) attempts to move forward in the integration of practice and online resources in the improvement of professional learning processes.

This OER proposes a model of learning from the practices developed by professionals in community work in disadvantaged environments or neighbourhoods. The model, referred to as a learning framework, emerges from the experience of several organisations. It uniquely attempts to bridge the gap between free and open educational resources available often online, and initiatives that express the real and present concerns of a community.

Learning frameworks are research-based learning design models that help facilitators align learning objectives with existing activities and practices, create motivating and inclusive environments, and integrate assessment into learning. The frameworks serve as a conceptual map for planning a curriculum or course of study and can be easily adapted and blended to build diverse content appropriate to the objectives being pursued.

Open Educational Resources have been developed over the past years in several formats, conceptions and directions in all learning scenarios. OER are part of a global move on changing the way of learning by giving access to free training resources, that can be very specific and in very different topics, and that usually can be used freely by learners, without any accompaniment by teachers or trainers. A clear example is https://oer.makingprojects.org/ where OER contents of different topics are compiled and where one can carry out his own learning process.

In spite of that, the next challenge is how to reuse, revise, remix and redistribute those resources by linking them to effective open approaches in which to explore teacher-learner-peer interactions, creation and assessment of contents.

We are convinced that one of the most innovative aspects is to link OERs with OEPs, with this we connect the digital with the real world, generating blended learning (see glossary). The idea behind this combination is to generate a collective process of open and collaborative learning full of content that circulates freely.

There are many strategies and methodologies for working with communities, some examples of which help us to understand possible processes. For example when we focus on community arts (see glossary) we refer to artistic or creative activities based in a community setting (see http://www.collage-arts.org/collage-arts/ as an example). Works from this genre can be of any media and are characterized by interaction or dialogue with the community. Often community art is based in socio-economically deprived areas, with a community-oriented, grassroots approach focused in the fight against social exclusion. Imagine a context like this: “Members of a local community will come together to express concerns or issues through an artistic process”. It may involve professional artists, but always mediators such as trainers, cultural managers, social activists, youth workers or social workers.

In this context, cultural heritage offers the facilitator / trainer several elements to work with: from tangible (buildings, monuments, clothes …) to intangibles (objects and cultural spaces, language and oral traditions, …), natural (green space, biodiversity, urban-nature relations, …) or digital (resources created in digital form, including text, images, video, records). In addition to that, there are the different resources the community in its diversity could at some point or already now manage(s) collectively, as a commons. These are all elements that can materialise in community processes. Inclusion in the form of intercultural dialogue, attention to diversity and support for gender equality, receives special attention.

The final idea is create an OEP that have the following attributes:

  • participatory technologies;
  • openness;
  • innovation and creativity;
  • the sharing of ideas and resources;
  • connected communities;
  • generation of apprentice;
  • reflexive practices and peer reviewing;
  • including some aspects of cultural heritage.

Managing educational resources as a commons can make learning more affordable and exciting.

M1: What is a learning environment?

A learning environment is a series of layers that involve communities, methodologies and expected results that have to be combined to generate a learning process.

It considers a research phase, where a general context of the community is developed and participants, mediators and/or experts have to be identified to participate in the project. In this phase a concrete problem has to be defined in order to design the rest of the process to find a collaborative solution for this.

A creative phase, where in collaborative workspaces, we put together knowledge and skills to prototype and find solutions for the previously defined problem.

For these two first phases, different tools can be used. Module 3 goes deep on them.

A design phase, where the knowledge and information has to be organised to generate a local action plan to test the prototype. In this phase an evaluation tool has also to be considered. More information about this can be found on Module 4.

Documents

M1: Concepts OER and OEP

OER

When we talk about an OER, we mean an Open Educational Resource. These are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. The term OER describes publicly accessible materials and resources for any user to use, re-mix, improve and redistribute under some licenses.

OERs can be very specific and give resources of very different topics. Usually they can be used freely by learners, without any accompaniment by teachers or trainers.

The development and promotion of open educational resources is often motivated by a desire to provide an alternate or enhanced educational paradigm.

Documents

OEP

Open educational practices (OEP) is the use of Open Educational Resources for teaching and learning in order to innovate the learning process. They may involve students participating in online, peer production communities within activities intended to support learning or more broadly, any context where access to educational opportunity through freely available online content and services is the norm. Such activities may include (but are not limited to), the creation, use and repurposing of open educational resources and their adaptation to the contextual setting.

The goal of Open Educational Practice (OEP) is to build the knowledge, skills, and behaviors that support and improve teaching and learning. Using open educational resources (OER) presents unique affordances for educators, as the use of OER is an invitation to adapt, personalize, and add relevancy to materials that inspire and encourage deeper learning in the classroom, across institutions and in a wide range of different contexts.

The OEP includes the open sharing of teaching practices and aims «to raise the quality of education and training, and innovate educational practices on institutional, professional and individual level». The OEP are also viewed as the next phase in OER development that continues to transform 21st century learning and learners. It is thus the next step to develop OER as levers for the transformation of learning through open intellectual property approaches, motivational frameworks, co-creation of content, technological skills and new certification methods.

The idea behind this combination is to generate a collective process of open and collaborative learning full of content that circulates freely. Openness should not only be accessed but also connectedness, trust and innovation.

Documents

M1: The commons, what are they?

The commons are the things that we inherit and create together and that we hope to leave to future generations. A great diversity of natural, cultural or social goods, such as: biodiversity, seeds, Internet, folklore, drinking water, genome, public space, etc. Goods that we often only perceive when they are threatened or in danger of disappearance or privatization. Everyone has access to the commons, it is just another civil right and not only those who can afford it.

Are the commons connected with the OEPs?

The «commons» is a model of governance for the common good. The way to produce and manage in community goods and resources, tangible and intangible, that belongs to all of us, or better, that belongs to no one.

The commons re-situate us in a humanist framework, in which issues that the neoliberal model has left aside, such as transparency, equity, universal access or diversity, gain new legitimacy. It proposes a possible alternative to the market economy, from which to integrate the economic and ethical, the individual and the collective. A model based on communities structured on trust.

Here, the attainment of skills and competences is based on paradigms of sharing knowledge, solidarity and commons. These forms of learning are bottom-up and construct new narratives amidst global urbanisation. The contexts in which such approaches flourish are mostly at the micro level within local communities and neighbourhoods.

Documents

M1: What do we need from the communities in the OEP's?

In a world of rapid transformation and often too slow systemic transition, identifying projects like OEP can do is to pilot change. Many projects that are already underway or have been developed in the past can be identified as open educational practices following the 8 attributes we identified in this model (participatory technologies; openness; innovation and creativity; the sharing of ideas and resources; connected communities; generation of apprentice; reflexive practices and peer reviewing; including some aspects of cultural heritage).

The dominant discourse of the market economy has a tendency to impose on us a logic of targeted efficiency and quantifiable outcomes, although this is not necessarily what initiatives like this contribute to society. These projects try, and on occasion fail, but often come up with lessons that, when later up-scaled and promoted, can have a meaningful impact on people’s lives.

The active participation of the community, the creation of environments and methodologies that allow the community to question its problems and propose alternatives for change, the systematization and evaluation of the research process, the dissemination of research results. The condition for carrying out this process or the main task of the researcher or social educator is to create the capacity for communities to express themselves, analyze their reality, produce their arguments, and associate broader social and political movements.

Documents

M1: Why is cultural heritage a key part of a learning environment?

Enlace a PDF 2014-heritage-mapping-version-2017_en.pdf

Enlace a PDF Participatory_governance_cultural heritage_en.pdf

The commons are created and recreated, connected and reconnected. It is born from the interaction between the members of a community (communities distributed and/or strange up to that moment) gathered around a theme or a problem. The commons is a state of emergency (because it is unpredictable and because it is urgent), it arises from the empowerment of those «affected» who claim threatened or destroyed rights. There are no commons without community, and vice versa. Therefore, the main objective is to make visible emerging communities of affected people – to give them time, to give them experience, to give them technology, to give them the means, to give them the word – with the will to build among all of them a more just world, a common world.

To talk about the commons is to recover important aspects of human behaviour, and also of its culture and nature, which the market discourse has discarded. The commons establish a new way of measuring «value». «Value» is not just a question of price, it is something that is rooted in communities and their social relations.

OEPs, then, are ways to highlight or put into value knowledge, practices and cultural heritage among communities, while developing skills in these communities.

Documents

M1: Key elements to design OEP

  • Design of the learning environment
  • How to build/reinforce trust between participants
  • Venue or place where the activities will be developed
  • Communication design and process (posters, social networks, etc)
  • Evaluation of the whole process

See good practices at:  Comprehensive Model for Open Educational Practice.

INTRODUCTION

The project «From open educational resources to open educational practices for commons community and cultural projects» (OpenCCCP) attempts to move forward in the integration of practice and online resources in the improvement of professional learning processes.

 

This OER proposes a model of learning from the practices developed by professionals in community work in disadvantaged environments or neighbourhoods. The model, referred to as a learning framework, emerges from the experience of several organisations. It uniquely attempts to bridge the gap between free and open educational resources available often online, and initiatives that express the real and present concerns of a community.

 

Learning frameworks are research-based learning design models that help facilitators align learning objectives with existing activities and practices, create motivating and inclusive environments, and integrate assessment into learning. The frameworks serve as a conceptual map for planning a curriculum or course of study and can be easily adapted and blended to build diverse content appropriate to the objectives being pursued.

 

Open Educational Resources (link a descripción más abajo…es posible? Si no, al glosario) have been developed over the past years in several formats, conceptions and directions in all learning scenarios. OER are part of a global move on changing the way of learning by giving access to free training resources, that can be very specific and in very different topics, and that usually can be used freely by learners, without any accompaniment by teachers or trainers. A clear example is https://oer.makingprojects.org/ where OER contents of different topics are compiled and where one can carry out his own learning process.

 

In spite of that, the next challenge is how to reuse, revise, remix and redistribute those resources by linking them to effective open approaches in which to explore teacher-learner-peer interactions, creation and assessment of contents.

 

We are convinced that one of the most innovative aspects is to link OERs with OEPs, with this we connect the digital with the real world, generating blended learning (link a glosario). The idea behind this combination is to generate a collective process of open and collaborative learning full of content that circulates freely.

 

There are many strategies and methodologies for working with communities, some examples of which help us to understand possible processes. For example when we focus on community arts (link a glosario)  we refer to artistic or creative activities based in a community setting (see http://www.collage-arts.org/collage-arts/ as an example). Works from this genre can be of any media and are characterized by interaction or dialogue with the community. Often community art is based in socio-economically deprived areas, with a community-oriented, grassroots approach focused in the fight against social exclusion. Imagine a context like this: “Members of a local community will come together to express concerns or issues through an artistic process”. It may involve professional artists, but always mediators such as trainers, cultural managers, social activists, youth workers or social workers.

 

In this context, cultural heritage offers the facilitator / trainer several elements to work with: from tangible (buildings, monuments, clothes …) to intangibles (objects and cultural spaces, language and oral traditions, …), natural (green space, biodiversity, urban-nature relations, …) or digital (resources created in digital form, including text, images, video, records). In addition to that, there are the different resources the community in its diversity could at some point or already now manage(s) collectively, as a commons. These are all elements that can materialise in community processes. Inclusion in the form of intercultural dialogue, attention to diversity and support for gender equality, receives special attention.

 

The final idea is create an OEP that have the following attributes:

  • participatory technologies;
  • openness;
  • innovation and creativity;
  • the sharing of ideas and resources;
  • connected communities;
  • generation of apprentice;
  • reflexive practices and peer reviewing;
  • including some aspects of cultural heritage.

 

Managing educational resources as a commons can make learning more affordable and exciting.

INTRODUCTION

The project «From open educational resources to open educational practices for commons community and cultural projects» (OpenCCCP) attempts to move forward in the integration of practice and online resources in the improvement of professional learning processes.

 

This OER proposes a model of learning from the practices developed by professionals in community work in disadvantaged environments or neighbourhoods. The model, referred to as a learning framework, emerges from the experience of several organisations. It uniquely attempts to bridge the gap between free and open educational resources available often online, and initiatives that express the real and present concerns of a community.

 

Learning frameworks are research-based learning design models that help facilitators align learning objectives with existing activities and practices, create motivating and inclusive environments, and integrate assessment into learning. The frameworks serve as a conceptual map for planning a curriculum or course of study and can be easily adapted and blended to build diverse content appropriate to the objectives being pursued.

 

Open Educational Resources (link a descripción más abajo…es posible? Si no, al glosario) have been developed over the past years in several formats, conceptions and directions in all learning scenarios. OER are part of a global move on changing the way of learning by giving access to free training resources, that can be very specific and in very different topics, and that usually can be used freely by learners, without any accompaniment by teachers or trainers. A clear example is https://oer.makingprojects.org/ where OER contents of different topics are compiled and where one can carry out his own learning process.

 

In spite of that, the next challenge is how to reuse, revise, remix and redistribute those resources by linking them to effective open approaches in which to explore teacher-learner-peer interactions, creation and assessment of contents.

 

We are convinced that one of the most innovative aspects is to link OERs with OEPs, with this we connect the digital with the real world, generating blended learning (link a glosario). The idea behind this combination is to generate a collective process of open and collaborative learning full of content that circulates freely.

 

There are many strategies and methodologies for working with communities, some examples of which help us to understand possible processes. For example when we focus on community arts (link a glosario)  we refer to artistic or creative activities based in a community setting (see http://www.collage-arts.org/collage-arts/ as an example). Works from this genre can be of any media and are characterized by interaction or dialogue with the community. Often community art is based in socio-economically deprived areas, with a community-oriented, grassroots approach focused in the fight against social exclusion. Imagine a context like this: “Members of a local community will come together to express concerns or issues through an artistic process”. It may involve professional artists, but always mediators such as trainers, cultural managers, social activists, youth workers or social workers.

 

In this context, cultural heritage offers the facilitator / trainer several elements to work with: from tangible (buildings, monuments, clothes …) to intangibles (objects and cultural spaces, language and oral traditions, …), natural (green space, biodiversity, urban-nature relations, …) or digital (resources created in digital form, including text, images, video, records). In addition to that, there are the different resources the community in its diversity could at some point or already now manage(s) collectively, as a commons. These are all elements that can materialise in community processes. Inclusion in the form of intercultural dialogue, attention to diversity and support for gender equality, receives special attention.

 

The final idea is create an OEP that have the following attributes:

  • participatory technologies;
  • openness;
  • innovation and creativity;
  • the sharing of ideas and resources;
  • connected communities;
  • generation of apprentice;
  • reflexive practices and peer reviewing;
  • including some aspects of cultural heritage.

 

Managing educational resources as a commons can make learning more affordable and exciting.

M4: What is it in the context of OPENCCCP a Local Action Plan focused on heritage enhancement?

Definition, main aspects of it and some examples, links and resources for the design of local action plans.

Despite some places having great cultural potential to build on policies, programmes and  projects, valorization actions are missing due to several facts such as the lack of proactive culture, unprepared institutions, short term vision, economic and political interests.

However the desire of changing and improving the place where people live or work could push, in such places, local groups, associations, public bodies and single citizens in front of the questions “what can we do for our neighborhood?”, “how our vision of changing could turn into reality and actions?”.

In specific places, characterized by ancient and modern heritage (meaning as physical artifacts and intangible attributes),  the daily discovery of neighbourhood potential, stories and memories (as well the desire to not let the heritage disappear) could let emerge more specific questions such as  “how can we valorize our cultural heritage?”

The local action plan approach could help in this process of bottom-up awareness and, consequently, of action in a meaningful and proactive way as structured stakeholders groups and single citizens could use this tool to turn their visions  into reality.

In the same way, organizations with the desire (or mission in the case of very specific public bodies) to develop local projects of valorization or neighbourhood renovation could use the plan approach to better understand the sequence and the elements an action should contain to lead to the desired change.

Thus, a local action plan could effectively describe the way an organization could meet selected objectives or goals through detailed action steps that describe how and when these steps will be taken in a defined and specific territorial area. Up-to-date plans should provide a positive vision for the future of each area and a framework for addressing housing, economic, social, environmental and, more specifically, cultural priorities.

It is in this sense that the local action plan concept, if focused  on local heritage valorization, could be related to the wider Local Economic Development (LED) approach in order to take concrete sources of inspiration from its practical applications .

The purpose of Local Economic Development is to build up the economic capacity of a local area to improve its economic future and the quality of life for all. It is a process by which the public, business and non-governmental sectors work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation including also the better use of local cultural resources.

In fact, according to the OECD publication “Culture and Local Development” there has been, in the last years, a growing interest in the role played by cultural activities especially in local development.  When  major  traditional  industries  declined  or  disappeared  at  the end  of  the  last  century,  cultural  tourism  and  creative  industries  have  been recognised as both a heritage and a lever for future development. Central and local governments were mandated to develop infrastructures for cultural creation and heritage conservation, to widen the accessibility to cultural goods  and services, and to ensure that culture reinforces the image of their territories. These objectives remain valid, but the context has evolved, influenced by several trends such as digitalisation, globalisation, central city neighborhood gentrification, new conditions on the cultural goods market.

In particular these objectives should be aligned to innovative participative actions that support citizens (together with an intermediary body as an ngo or a local public body)  of a specific place to determine and co-design the progress of their own neighbourhood to contrast emerging issues as gentrification or touristification.

Regardless of the previous mentioned issues, also in this complex and changing framework, it is certain the value of cultural heritage (tangible and intangible) enhancement, led by a specific plan based on the knowledge of the cultural element that has strong potential to lead local economic development on the right path.

In order to better understand this vision an example could help. Thus, we can look at the project “Open Vicoli” https://www.opencccp.eu/open-vicoli/ . Open Vicoli is an 18 months project that aims to build an alliance for the street of Genoa (“vicoli” little typical italian city alleys) within social workers, cultural operators, local museums.

The goal is to put the efforts carried out by the various organizations that operate and live in the territory of the historic center of Genoa into a system, creating a stable and ever-expanding network that unites cultural and social sectors in a structured dialogue, to experiment the methods of involvement and participation and bring citizens closer to the culture and the heritage widespread in the project area. The main objective is to build together a new vision of the alleys: from problem to proposal, from excluded territory to shared value.

The general structure of a Local Action Plan

The development process of a local action plan is structured according to several and logically interconnected sections.

The first step of a local action plan is the “local context analysis.

The first aspect to take into consideration when we start to think of an action to be implemented is, in fact, to understand and have clear the definition of the starting issue of the plan thanks to a strong context analysis. The design of local action plans is in this sense necessary to start to solve a local issue, or to understand how to valorize local potentialities, by developing activities as educational training, pilot cases, heritage valorization, etc.

A good analysis requires the knowledge based on the context of reference. It also includes preliminary activities such as a stakeholder mapping, focus groups, formal and informal meetings with local stakeholders that could be interested, affected or activated by the plan itself. In particular the stakeholder map is important when it is  faced with a new context to provide a focus to where efforts should be spent to ensure the diversity of the area or issue is represented (see at this link a description of this tool applied  to an engagement process).

Another tool useful for the local context analysis is the informal meeting. Especially if you face work in deprived or complicated neighbourhoods, informal meetings are fundamental tools in the work with local people. Informal meetings could open the way to enter into the real issue, and consequently the solution your plan needs to consider to be effective or, at least, strongly related to the context in which you are going to focus.

The action “spazi di quartiere – neighbourhood spaces” and “laboratori di quartiere” are good examples of this preliminary approach applied in a deprived neighbourhood of Palermo (Italy). In this action the organization Bond of Union through formal and informal meetings comes out with real issues and potential ideas for solutions proposed by citizens. All this work has been preceded by a report analysing the main local issues through interview and questionnaire to give voice to neighbourhood inhabitants.

INTRODUCTION

The project «From open educational resources to open educational practices for commons community and cultural projects» (OpenCCCP) attempts to move forward in the integration of practice and online resources in the improvement of professional learning processes.

 

This OER proposes a model of learning from the practices developed by professionals in community work in disadvantaged environments or neighbourhoods. The model, referred to as a learning framework, emerges from the experience of several organisations. It uniquely attempts to bridge the gap between free and open educational resources available often online, and initiatives that express the real and present concerns of a community.

 

Learning frameworks are research-based learning design models that help facilitators align learning objectives with existing activities and practices, create motivating and inclusive environments, and integrate assessment into learning. The frameworks serve as a conceptual map for planning a curriculum or course of study and can be easily adapted and blended to build diverse content appropriate to the objectives being pursued.

 

Open Educational Resources (link a descripción más abajo…es posible? Si no, al glosario) have been developed over the past years in several formats, conceptions and directions in all learning scenarios. OER are part of a global move on changing the way of learning by giving access to free training resources, that can be very specific and in very different topics, and that usually can be used freely by learners, without any accompaniment by teachers or trainers. A clear example is https://oer.makingprojects.org/ where OER contents of different topics are compiled and where one can carry out his own learning process.

 

In spite of that, the next challenge is how to reuse, revise, remix and redistribute those resources by linking them to effective open approaches in which to explore teacher-learner-peer interactions, creation and assessment of contents.

 

We are convinced that one of the most innovative aspects is to link OERs with OEPs, with this we connect the digital with the real world, generating blended learning (link a glosario). The idea behind this combination is to generate a collective process of open and collaborative learning full of content that circulates freely.

 

There are many strategies and methodologies for working with communities, some examples of which help us to understand possible processes. For example when we focus on community arts (link a glosario)  we refer to artistic or creative activities based in a community setting (see http://www.collage-arts.org/collage-arts/ as an example). Works from this genre can be of any media and are characterized by interaction or dialogue with the community. Often community art is based in socio-economically deprived areas, with a community-oriented, grassroots approach focused in the fight against social exclusion. Imagine a context like this: “Members of a local community will come together to express concerns or issues through an artistic process”. It may involve professional artists, but always mediators such as trainers, cultural managers, social activists, youth workers or social workers.

 

In this context, cultural heritage offers the facilitator / trainer several elements to work with: from tangible (buildings, monuments, clothes …) to intangibles (objects and cultural spaces, language and oral traditions, …), natural (green space, biodiversity, urban-nature relations, …) or digital (resources created in digital form, including text, images, video, records). In addition to that, there are the different resources the community in its diversity could at some point or already now manage(s) collectively, as a commons. These are all elements that can materialise in community processes. Inclusion in the form of intercultural dialogue, attention to diversity and support for gender equality, receives special attention.

 

The final idea is create an OEP that have the following attributes:

  • participatory technologies;
  • openness;
  • innovation and creativity;
  • the sharing of ideas and resources;
  • connected communities;
  • generation of apprentice;
  • reflexive practices and peer reviewing;
  • including some aspects of cultural heritage.

 

Managing educational resources as a commons can make learning more affordable and exciting.

Blended Learning

Blended learning is an approach to education that combines online educational materials and opportunities for interaction online with traditional place-based classroom methods. It requires the physical presence of both teacher and student, with some elements of student control over time, place, path, or pace.

Community art

Community art, also sometimes known as «dialogical art», «community-engaged art», or «community-based art», refers to the practice of art based in and generated in a community setting. Works in this form can be of any media and are characterized by interaction or dialogue with the community.

Lifelong learning

Lifelong learning is the «ongoing, voluntary, and self-motivated» pursuit of knowledge for either personal or professional reasons. Therefore, it not only enhances social inclusion, active citizenship, and personal development, but also self-sustainability, as well as competitiveness and employability.

Community processes

Processes that need to be followed and documented to guarantee (or look for) active participation and effective collaboration of everybody across the community.

Open learning design

Open learning design is the application of a pedagogical model for a specific learning objective, target group, and a specific context or knowledge domain. Specifies under which conditions what activities have to be performed by learners and facilitators to enable learners to attain the learning objectives.

Education (expanded)

Education can happen in any moment, in any place. Inside and outside the academic institution. This is a proposal in line with ZEMOS98’s attempt to reflect on the idea of giving new meaning to education in a way that is not just limited to the academic-institutional sphere. The new digital conjuncture is a new opportunity to recover the idea of reciprocity in the forms of distribution of knowledge.

Culture

Culture is a shared heritage among a group of people. It is a set of mental habits that defines the slow through which we see things and which guides our interactions with others. Culture is the «operating system» of the city.

Beta

Inherited from the programming field, it is considered a project in «beta» which is not finished but it is at the disposal of everyone because it is provided, it finds the limits, it is evaluated and it can be improved.

Hacker

those who want to improve an object / process / device already exist to provide it with new functions.

City

The city seen as interconnected, not separated, layers.

Participation

Participation has always been managed and quantified, but this perspective has been changed because it continues to be transformative.

Sharing

From the perspective of philosophy 2.0, sharing as a human essence. http://freesouls.cc/essays/07-isaac-mao-sharism.html

Collective intelligence

This is a form of intelligence that arises from the collaboration and competition of many individuals, or from a single experience. It is a generalised term for cyberculture or the society of knowledge. It appears in a wide variety of forms of consensus decision-making in bacteria, animals, human beings and computers.

Prototyping

The process by which we arrive at the design of a prototype.

It is a limited representation of a product or idea, which allows us to test it in real situations or explore its use, thus creating a design process of iteration that generates quality. A prototype can be anything, from a paper with simple drawings, an action, an interface to a complex software. They are useful for communicating, discussing and defining ideas between those who design them and those who are responsible for them.

Social

Indissociable from culture, from education, one of the innovative axes of our time.